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Move to Australia
With a landmass spanning 3 million square miles and a population of approximately 25 million, Australia boasts a unique blend of stunning landscapes, including beaches, deserts, and the iconic Outback. Alongside natural beauty, the country is home to renowned landmarks such as the Sydney Opera House and the historic Melbourne Cricket Ground, enriching the lives of its residents with cultural experiences and modern amenities. Embracing a cosmopolitan lifestyle, Australia stands as one of the world’s most urbanized and multicultural nations, promising prospective expatriates an exceptional quality of life.
Australia’s history is marked by a fascinating journey of exploration and settlement. Dutch explorers made their initial landings in 1606, followed by British settlements in 1788. Many early settlers were convicts sent to Australia as punishment. Initially, a degree of peaceful coexistence was established between the newcomers and the Aboriginal people, but disputes over land ownership soon led to conflicts.
A significant turning point occurred in 1851 when gold was discovered, triggering a massive rush of immigrants in search of prosperity. This influx led to the establishment of six separate colonies by 1859, eventually culminating in the Federation of Australia in 1901, uniting these colonies into a single nation.
World War I had a profound impact on Australia, with more than 400,000 Australians volunteering to serve. The Gallipoli campaign in 1915, though ultimately a failure with a significant loss of almost 9,000 Australian lives, became a pivotal event in shaping the nation’s identity.
In recent decades, Australia’s economy has undergone significant diversification, showcasing robust sectors in mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and services. The nation’s economic integration with East Asian countries has played a crucial role in its growth and development over the past 50 years. Today, Australia stands as a vibrant and thriving nation, shaped by its unique history and diverse and dynamic economy.
Australia enjoys mild and delightful weather with over 3,000 hours of annual sunshine. As the largest continent, it exhibits diverse weather depending on latitude. When Europe and Latin America have winter, the southern hemisphere experiences summer. Most of Australia has four seasons: summer (Dec-Mar, avg. temp 29°C), autumn (Mar-May), winter (Jun-Aug, avg. 13°C), and spring (Sep-Nov). The tropical north has wet and dry seasons.
Australia’s demography encompasses essential statistics, major cities, ethnicity, and religion. As of 31 March 2023, the population of Australia is 26,473,055 people. Australia ranks as the 52nd most populous country globally and is the most populous nation in Oceania. Majority of the population resides in urban regions, and it is projected to exceed 28 million by 2030.
Australia’s population has seen significant growth since British colonization in 1788 when it was estimated to be between 300,000 and 1,000,000 Indigenous Australians. This increase is attributed to numerous waves of immigration over the years.
Australia stands as one of the largest countries globally, encompassing an entire continent. Despite its rich natural resources and fertile land, over one-third of the country is covered in desert.
The southwest and southeast regions, where most cities and farms are located, enjoy a comfortable climate. However, the famous outback, found in remote rural areas, boasts vast deserts with scorching temperatures, scarce water, and minimal vegetation. In contrast, the northeast is home to dense rainforests adorned with lush vegetation.
The Great Dividing Range, extending approximately 3,700 kilometers, runs along the eastern and southeastern edges of Australia. This mountainous stretch plays a vital role, channeling water into the country’s most significant rivers and the Great Artesian Basin, recognized as the world’s largest groundwater source.
Australia’s political landscape adheres to a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Since its Federation in 1901, the country has upheld a stable liberal democratic system under one of the world’s oldest constitutions. As the world’s sixth-oldest continuous democracy, Australia functions predominantly as a two-party system, with compulsory voting in elections. In 2021, the Economist Intelligence Unit bestowed the rating of a “full democracy” upon Australia.
The country also operates as a federation, distributing power between the federal government and individual states and territories. This system of governance allows for a balanced distribution of authority and responsibilities across different levels of administration.
In times of uncertainty, the Australian economy stands firm on its solid foundations. Prior to 2020, the economy had only experienced two years of negative growth in the last six decades. Since the 1991 recession, Australia has maintained an average growth rate of 3.2 percent, surpassing all other major developed economies worldwide.
Crucial to its economic resilience is the strong trade links with its neighboring Asian countries. The rapidly growing Asia region has been a driving force, and Australia’s 14 free trade agreements across Asia and the Pacific have facilitated the agile expansion of its businesses.
While over 80% of the Australian economy is service-based, its global leadership in key industries contributes significantly to its exports. Asian markets have a strong demand for Australian minerals and energy, while its efficient agricultural sector and premium-quality produce find eager buyers in those markets.
Supporting all these economic successes is Australia’s robust financial system, strong fiscal position, and low government debt. This financial stability allows Australia to strategically invest in future industries and essential infrastructure, laying the groundwork for sustained growth and prosperity.
The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) serves as the primary revenue collection agency for the Australian Government. Its crucial role involves efficiently managing and shaping the tax and superannuation systems that provide funding for essential services benefiting Australians. The key responsibilities of the ATO include:
- Revenue Collection: The ATO is responsible for collecting taxes and ensuring compliance with tax laws to generate revenue for the government.
- Goods and Services Tax (GST): Acting on behalf of the Australian states and territories, the ATO administers the goods and services tax (GST) – a consumption tax levied on goods and services sold within Australia.
- Social Programs: The ATO administers various programs that offer transfers and benefits to the community, ensuring that support reaches those in need.
- Superannuation System: A significant aspect of the ATO’s role is managing crucial components of Australia’s superannuation system, which involves overseeing retirement savings and pension funds for citizens.
- Custodian of the Australian Business Register: The ATO acts as the custodian of the Australian Business Register, maintaining vital information about businesses operating in Australia.
Through its multifaceted responsibilities, the ATO plays a pivotal role in ensuring the effective functioning of Australia’s tax and superannuation systems, contributing to the nation’s well-being and prosperity
Australia is actively engaged in promoting security and stability both regionally and globally through various initiatives and collaborations with other countries. To address security challenges such as terrorism, cyber threats, weapons proliferation, and maritime security, Australia adopts a multi-dimensional approach involving different government departments.
The key elements of Australia’s security approach include a modern and versatile defense force, strong bilateral ties with countries like the United States, New Zealand, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, and a commitment to a rules-based global order and the United Nations.
In the region, Australia collaborates with other nations to address traditional and non-traditional security issues. It has been a significant non-NATO contributor to the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan and continues to provide financial assistance for the development of Afghanistan’s security forces even post-2014.
Australia takes a leading role in global efforts for non-proliferation, disarmament, and counter-terrorism, demonstrating its commitment to promoting peace and stability worldwide.
Over the years, Australia has actively participated in peace and humanitarian missions, with more than 65,000 Australians serving in over 50 peace and security operations worldwide since 1947. The country has contributed to building peace in its neighborhood, including missions in the Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (Papua New Guinea).
Australia’s approach to peace operations has evolved, emphasizing policing and civilian components, as well as helping nations enhance their capabilities and strengthen their national institutions.
Through these collaborative efforts and commitments, Australia plays a crucial role in contributing to security and stability both within its region and on the global stage. For more information, visit www.defence.gov.au and www.dfat.gov.au.